The peroneus muscles are muscles that mainly act in ankle eversion and can be divided into PL and PB, which have different but important roles in foot and ankle functions. Therefore, PL and PB dysfunction can lead to foot and ankle issues, making. selective strength exercise necessary. This study aimed to identify the effect of two different exercise techniques on PL and PB morphologies. Two interventions were performed on separate days: the PL intervention, in which a Thera-Band® was placed on the ball of the foot and pushed out from the contact point, and the PB intervention, in which the Thera-Band® was pulled from the base of the fifth metatarsal. Cross-sectional area (CSA) and thickness of the peroneus muscles at 25% (showing the PL morphology) and 75% (showing the PB morphology) proximal to the line connecting the fibular head and lateral malleolus, as well as ankle strength was measured before and immediately after the interventions and at 10, 20, and 30 min later. A repeated-measures two-way analysis of variance was conducted to identify differences in the effects of the interventions on the PL and PB. Main and interaction effects on CSA, thickness, and ankle strength, with a significant increase in CSA and thickness in the proximal 25% in the PL intervention and the distal 75% in the PB intervention immediately after implementation, were observed (p < 0.05). The transient increase in muscle volume due to edema immediately after exercise indicates the acute effect of exercise. The CSA and thickness of the proximal 25% in the PL intervention and the distal 75% in the PB intervention increased immediately after the intervention, indicating that these interventions can be used to selectively exercise the PL and PB.